Date of Publication
Molecular and cellular biochemistry
Epidemiological studies have exhibited a strong correlation between exposure to air pollution and deaths due to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Benzo-a-pyrene-1,6-quinone (BP-1,6-Q) is one of the components of air pollution This study was to examine the role of GSH in BP-1,6-Q mediated cytotoxicity in human EA.hy96 endothelial cells and demonstrated that induction of cellular glutathione by a potent triterpenoid, CDDO-Im (1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole), protects cells against BP-1,6-Q induced protein and lipid damage. Incubation of EA.hy926 endothelial cells with BP-1,6-Q caused a significant increase in dose-dependent cytotoxicity as measured by LDH release assay and both apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths as measured by flow cytometric analysis. Incubation of EA.hy926 endothelial cells with BP-1,6-Q also caused a significant decrease in cellular GSH levels. The diminishment of cellular GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) potentiated BP-1,6-Q-induced toxicity significantly suggesting a critical involvement of GSH in BP-1,6-Q induced cellular toxicity. GSH-induction by CDDO-Im significantly protects cells against BP-1,6-Q induced protein and lipid damage as measured by protein carbonyl (PC) assay and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, respectively. However, the co-treatment of cells with CDDO-Im and BSO reversed the cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Im on BP-1,6-Q-mediated lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. These results suggest that induction of GSH by CDDO-Im might be the important cellular defense against BP-1,6-Q induced protein and lipid damage. These findings would contribute to better understand the action of BP-1,6-Q and may help to develop novel therapies to protect against BP-1,6-Q-induced atherogenesis.
Shukla, Halley; Lee, Ho Young; Koucheki, Ashkon; Bibi, Humaira A.; Gaje, Gabriella; Sun, Xiaolun; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y R.; and Jia, Zhenquan, "Targeting glutathione with the triterpenoid CDDO-Im protects against benzo-a-pyrene-1,6-quinone-induced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells" (2020). Osteopathic Medicine, Jerry M. Wallace School of. 2392.